# What is meant by curvilinear coordinate?

## What is meant by curvilinear coordinate?

Definition of curvilinear coordinates : a system of geometrical coordinates in which if only one of the coordinates is allowed to vary the locus may be a plane or twisted curve.

How do you find the gradient of spherical coordinates?

As an example, we will derive the formula for the gradient in spherical coordinates. Idea: In the Cartesian gradient formula ∇F(x,y,z)=∂F∂xi+∂F∂yj+∂F∂zk, put the Cartesian basis vectors i, j, k in terms of the spherical coordinate basis vectors eρ,eθ,eφ and functions of ρ,θ and φ.

What are scale factors in curvilinear coordinates?

The scale factor gives a measure of how a change in the coordinate changes the position of a point. Two commonly-used sets of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are cylindrical polar coordinates and spherical polar coordinates.

### What is arc length in curvilinear coordinates?

Remark: An example of a curvilinear coordinate system which is not orthogonal is provided by the system of elliptical cylindrical coordinates (see tutuorial 9.4). Arc Length The arc length ds is the length of the infinitesimal vector dr :- ( ds)2 = dr · dr . In Cartesian coordinates (ds)2 = (dx)2 + (dy)2 + (dz)2 .

Are curvilinear coordinates orthogonal?

The most useful of these systems are orthogonal; that is, at any point in space the vectors aligned with the three coordinate directions are mutually perpendicular. In gen eral, the variation of a single coordinate will generate a curve in space, rather than a straight line; hence the term curvilinear.

What is a curvilinear figure?

consisting of or bounded by curved lines: a curvilinear figure. forming or moving in a curved line. formed or characterized by curved lines.

#### Can you take the gradient of a vector?

No, gradient of a vector does not exist. Gradient is only defined for scaler quantities. Gradient converts a scaler quantity into a vector.

What is a gradient in vector calculus?

The gradient is a fancy word for derivative, or the rate of change of a function. It’s a vector (a direction to move) that. Points in the direction of greatest increase of a function (intuition on why)

Why we use curvilinear coordinate?

The formalism of curvilinear coordinates provides a unified and general description of the standard coordinate systems. Curvilinear coordinates are often used to define the location or distribution of physical quantities which may be, for example, scalars, vectors, or tensors.

## What are orthogonal curvilinear coordinates?

When the system of curvilinear coordinates is such that the three co- ordinate surfaces are mutually perpendicular at each point, it is termed an. orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. In this event the unit tangent. vectors to the coordinate curves are also mutually perpendicular at each.

Why is s used for arc length?

Arc Length: In a circle, the length of an arc is a portion of the circumference. The letter “s” is used to represent arc length. One radian is the central angle that subtends an arc length of one radius (s = r). Since all circles are similar, one radian is the same value for all circles.

What is non orthogonal coordinate system?

A system of skew coordinates is a curvilinear coordinate system where the coordinate surfaces are not orthogonal, in contrast to orthogonal coordinates. These coordinate systems can be useful if the geometry of a problem fits well into a skewed system.

### What are the vector operators in a curvilinear coordinate system?

Vector operators in curvilinear coordinate systems Vector operators in curvilinear coordinate systems In a Cartesian system, take x 1= x, x 2= y, and x 3= z, then an element of arc length ds2is, ds2= dx2 1+ dx 2 2+ dx 2 3 In a general system of coordinates, we still have x

What is the difference between Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates?

Required is that the transformation is locally invertible (a one-to-one map) at each point. This means that one can convert a point given in one coordinate system to its curvilinear coordinates and back. Depending on the application, a curvilinear coordinate system may be simpler to use than the Cartesian coordinate system.

What is an example of a curvilinear system?

Well-known examples of curvilinear systems are polar coordinates for R2 , and cylinder and spherical polar coordinates for R3 . The name curvilinear coordinates, coined by the French mathematician Lamé, derives from the fact that the coordinate surfaces of the curvilinear systems are curved.

#### Is there a special case for orthogonal curvilinear systems?

In this section a general discussion of orthogo­ nal curvilinear systems is given first, and then the relationships for cylindrical and spher­ ical coordinates are derived as special cases. The presentation here closely follows that in Hildebrand (1976).