How is Monochloramine formed?

How is Monochloramine formed?

Monochloramine, dichloramine (NHCl2) and trichloramine (NCl3) are produced by adding chlorine to a solution containing ammonia, by adding ammonia to a solution containing free residual chlorine or by adding premixed solutions of ammonia and chlorine to water (1–4).

What is the mechanism of action of sterilization?

The mode of action of these compounds is through inactivation of energy producing enzymes, denaturation of essential cell proteins, and disruption of the cell membrane.

How does the chloramine get generated?

Chloramines are frequently produced by adding ammonia to water containing free chlorine (HOCl or OCl, depending on the pH). When the reaction takes place three kinds of inorganic chloramines can be formed. The pH value determines which kind of chloramines is formed.

What is the ratio of ammonia and chlorine in chloramine?

The weight ratio of chlorine to ammonia (as N) is usually in the range 3:1 to 4:1; when the ratio exceeds 5:1 monochloramine is destroyed. Ammonia is added after final chlorination when the free chlorine has acted for the requisite contact time.

Is Monochloramine an acid or base?

Monochloramine, often called simply chloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. Together with dichloramine (NHCl2) and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3), it is one of the three chloramines of ammonia….Monochloramine.

Melting point −66 °C (−87 °F; 207 K)
Acidity (pKa) 14
Basicity (pKb) 15
Related compounds

What does Monochloramine smell like?

Monochloramine—the disinfectant species—smells like chlorine. Di- and tri-chloramine stink.

What is sterilization process?

Sterilization describes a process that destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life and is carried out in health-care facilities by physical or chemical methods. Disinfection describes a process that eliminates many or all pathogenic microorganisms, except bacterial spores, on inanimate objects (Tables 1 and 2).

What color is chloramine?


PubChem CID 25423
Synonyms CHLORAMINE Chloramide Monochloramine Monochloroamine 10599-90-3 More…
Molecular Weight 51.47
Dates Modify 2021-12-18 Create 2005-03-27
Description Chloramine is a colorless to yellow liquid with a strong pungent odor. (NTP, 1992) CAMEO Chemicals Chloramine is a halide. ChEBI

Why is chloramine better than chlorine for sterilization of water?

Chloramine is less volatile than chlorine, so it stays in the water longer than chlorine, which ensures that all areas of the distribution network are properly disinfected. Chloramine is less reactive with naturally-occurring organic matter, so it produces lesser amounts of DBPs.

Is chloramine in tap water?

Are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.


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