What is a C2 hangman fracture?
A hangman’s fracture is a break in the second vertebra of your neck, called the C2, or axis. This bone forms a ring around your spinal cord. A hangman’s fracture occurs on both sides of this bone. Despite its gruesome name, a hangman’s fracture is rarely caused by hangings.
What is the clinical significance of the hangman fracture which specific vertebrae is affected?
The fracture is in most cases lethal. The fracture is caused by an extreme force on the upper vertebrae and especially on the dens of the axis. The fracture causes damage to the spinal cord which leads to paralysis of respiratory muscles and most often death.
Why is it called Hangman fracture?
Schneider introduced the term “hangman’s fracture” in 1965, and reported on the biomechanics and other similarities of the cervical fractures seen following judicial hangings and those caused by motor vehicle accidents.
How is a C2 fracture treated?
Treatment for type I C2 (axis) fractures is hard-collar immobilization for 6-8 weeks, which usually is quite successful. Type II fractures can be managed conservatively or surgically….Odontoid fractures
- Halo immobilization.
- Internal fixation (odontoid screw fixation)
- Posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis.
What is the C2 in your neck?
The C2 dermatome is an area of skin that receives sensations through the C2 nerve. This dermatome includes the top and back of the scalp, the skin over the front of the neck, and the ear lobes. These muscles include those that allow the neck to bend forward.
How long does it take a C2 fracture to heal?
Typically, recovery after nonsurgical treatment of C1-C2 takes 8 to 12 weeks.
What is a type 2 Effendi fracture?
Effendi Type II. Effendi Type II fractures of the axis involve a dislocation of the fracture fragments with involvement of intervertebral disc C2/C3. Depending on the applied force, the anterior portion of the vertebra angles toward the back or front, or the anterior portion of the axis is dislocated towards the front.
What are Hangman’s fractures?
Hangman’s fractures have been used to describe traumatic spondylolisthesis of C2 since it was initially noted in 1965 by Schneider et al. . It is defined as fractures to the lamina, articular facets, pedicles, or pars of the axis vertebra. Hangman’s fractures are often caused by falling, diving or motor vehicle accidents.
What is the Effendi classification of cervical disc fractures?
In 1981, Effendi introduced a classification of these fractures differentiating the following subtypes: This type involves an isolated fracture of the axial pedicles. The intervertebral disc on the side of the 3rd cervical vertebra is intact, the corpus of the axis is only slightly dislocated.
Are atypical Hangman fractures associated with neurologic deficiencies?
Atypical Hangman fractures (AHF) were first formally reported and considered to be more often associated with neurologic deficit in 1993. However, there is a paucity of literature focusing on these fractures.